How to Pronounce -ed

8/20/2015 10:39:17 AM
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The past simple tense and past participle of all regular verbs end in -ed. For example:
work, worked, worked
In addition, many adjectives are made from the past participle and so end in -ed. For example:
I like painted furniture.
The question is, how do we pronounce the -ed? The answer is,in 3 ways:
  • /ɪd/
  • /t/
  • /d/


*Note that it is the sound that is important, not the letter or spelling. For example, fax ends in the letter x but the sound /s/;like ends in the letter e but the sound /k/.

Exceptions
The following -ed words used as adjectives are pronounced with /ɪd/:
  • aged
  • dogged
  • ragged
  • blessed
  • learned
  • wicked
  • crooked
  • naked
  • wretched
So we say:
  • an aged man /ɪd/
  • a blessed nuisance /ɪd/
  • a dogged persistence /ɪd/
  • a learned professor - the professor, who was truly learned /ɪd/
  • a wretched beggar - the beggar was wretched /ɪd/
But when used as real verbs (past simple and past participle), the normal rules apply and we say:
  • he aged quickly /d/
  • he blessed me /t/
  • they dogged him /d/
  • he has learned well /d/ or /t/
 

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