IELTS HOPECO Vocabulary: Environment 3

8/27/2015 2:03:49 PM
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  • Environment: The surroundings and external conditions that affect the growth and development of living things.
  • Food chain: A representation of the relationship between plants and animals showing what eats what (for example: grass, mouse, snake). Energy is passed from one organism to another through the food chain.
  • Fossil fuel: Fuels that are formed in the ground from the remains of dead plants and animals. Oil, natural gas and coal are all fossil fuels. Fossil fuels are not a renewable resource.  Once consumed they are gone forever. When burned, they are a major cause of greenhouse gases and global warming.
  • Fungi (plural of fungus): Plantlike organisms, without leaves or roots, that lack chlorophyll, so they must obtain their nutrients from their environment. Mildew, yeast and mushrooms are fungi.
  • Fungicide: A pesticide used to control or destroy fungi on food or grain crops.
  • Genetic engineering (GE): Technology used to modify the genetic material of a cell or organism in order to produce desired effects or traits, and to eliminate undesirable ones.
  • Genetic modification: Genetically modified Modification of the characteristics or an organism by inserting genes from another organism into its DNA. (also called genetic engineering).
  • Global warming: A gradual warming of the earth's surface temperature reportedly caused by the emission of gases that trap the heat of the sun in the earth's atmosphere. The burning of fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide, methane and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. These gases form a blanket around the earth (similar to the walls of a greenhouse), holding heat and raising temperatures on the ground. Climate change is believed to be linked to global warming.
  • Greenhouse gases: Greenhouse gases are gases that trap the heat of the sun in the earth's atmosphere, producing the greenhouse effect. The result is an increase in the temperature of the earth's surface. Greenhouse gases include water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and ozone.
  • Ground water: Water found below the surface of the land, usually in porous rock formations. Ground water is the source of water found in wells and springs and is frequently used for drinking.
  • Habitat: The natural home of a plant or animal.
  • Herbicide: A herbicide used to kill or prevent the growth of unwanted plants.
  • Insecticide: A pesticide compound used to kill or prevent the growth of insects.

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